Blog : Travel

Best Panorama Views

Best Panorama Views

Google View allows the Panorama View of the most exotic places, may it be radioactive ridden, politically dangerous, geographically challenging, or security risky. The below includes key buildings/places of architectural, political, historical, geographical, cultural interests.

This nonetheless help to accessibility of photography facilitating education and exploration. Click on the titles to access the exact locations. Enjoy:

001_Mount Kinabalu
Mount Kinabalu

002_St. Peter’s Basilica
St. Peter’s Basilica

003_Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel

004_Kaaba, Mecca
Kaaba, Mecca

005_La Virgen Negra, Einsiedeln, Switzerland
La Virgen Negra, Einsiedeln, Switzerland

007_Pyramids of Giza
Pyramids of Giza

008_Royal Palace of Madrid
Royal Palace of Madrid

009_San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane

010_Hagia Sopia, Turkey
Hagia Sopia, Turkey

011_South Pole
South Pole

012_Ocean near Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
Ocean near Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

013_Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

014_North Korea Stadium
North Korea Stadium

015_Leader Kim Il Sung & General Kim Jung Il Statue
Leader Kim Il Sung & General Kim Jung Il Statue

016_Chernobyl Power Plant
Chernobyl Power Plant

017_Jewish Museum, Lindenstraße, Berlin, Germany
Jewish Museum, Lindenstraße, Berlin, Germany

018_Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican City
Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican City

019_London City Hall
London City Hall

020_St Ives, Cornwall
St Ives, Cornwall

021_Lulworth Cove
Lulworth Cove

022_Mayfield Lavender
Mayfield Lavender


024_Architectural Association, London
Architectural Association, London

025_Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles

026_The White House
The White House

027_Wilson Island, Australia
Wilson Island, Australia

028_Heron Island
Heron Island

029_Mount Everest
Mount Everest

030_Mount Everest - Snow
Mount Everest – Snow

031_Falling Water – Frank Lloyd Wright
Falling Water – Frank Lloyd Wright

032_Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

033_Galaxy Soho, Beijing
Galaxy Soho, Beijing

034_Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku
Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku

035_Caixa Forum, Herzog de Meuron
Caixa Forum, Herzog de Meuron

036_Washington Monument
Washington Monument

037_Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower

038_Louvre Museum, Paris, France
Louvre Museum, Paris, France

039_Komsomolskaya Metro Station
Komsomolskaya Metro Station

040_Grand Central Terminal, New York
Grand Central Terminal, New York

041_Kenwood House, Hampstead
Kenwood House, Hampstead

042_Ta Prohm
Ta Prohm

043_Taktsang Lhakhang, Bhutan
Taktsang Lhakhang, Bhutan

044_Batu Caves, Malaysia
Batu Caves, Malaysia

045_Antelope Canyon, USA
Antelope Canyon, USA

046_Phraya Nakhon Cave, Thailand
Phraya Nakhon Cave, Thailand

047_Glowworms Cave, New Zealand
Glowworms Cave, New Zealand




After our posting “PATTERNS ON EARTH – NATURAL VS ARTIFICIAL”, we continue looking at the constructed landscape in Urban Planning, whether their sharing similarities with organic or microchip arrangement, or the awe of its magnificent symmetrisation. Nonetheless, their existence show prove of human’s desire in Urban Planning.

Whilst such layouts are governed and allowable by local authority, its existence is supported by its land value, living culture, and existing landscape. Human capacity in urban planning is limitless.

The array of arrangements range from houses, water feature, plantations, plane parking, boat houses, to umbrella and tents. You may click on the name of the places to visit the map in Google.

001_Contour Development
Contour Development

002_Barcelona Grid
Barcelona Grid

003_Davis-Monthan Air Force Base Aircraft
Davis-Monthan Air Force Base Aircraft

004_Makoko Floating School
Makoko Floating School

Nahalal, Israel

006_Longshore Lake Community, Naples
Longshore Lake Community, Naples

007_Corkscrew Woodlands Blvd
Corkscrew Woodlands Blvd, Estero, FL 33928

008_636 Del Prado Blvd
636 Del Prado Blvd, Cape Coral

009_White Marsh Rd, Rotonda West
White Marsh Rd, Rotonda West

010_Southern Pines Dr
Southern Pines Dr

011_Wanatah Ave
Wanatah Ave, Lehigh Acres, Florida 33974

012_Cape Horn Blvd
17433 Cape Horn Blvd, Punta Gorda, Florida 33955

013_Alamander Ave
1495 Alamander Ave, Englewood, Florida 34223

014_Cape Coral
9th Ct, Cape Coral, Florida 33991

015_Pine Lakes Blvd
10200 Pine Lakes Blvd, Fort Myers, Florida 33903

016_Breezeswept Ave
22100 Breezeswept Ave, Port Charlotte, Florida 33952

017_North Naples
North Naples, Florida 34108

018_Marco Island
Marco Island, Florida 34145

019_Bondi Beach
Bondi Beach

020_Coogee Beach
Coogee Beach

021_Saint Tropez beach
Saint Tropez beach (Umbrella)

022_Maroubra Bay
Maroubra Bay – Sydney, Australia (surfer)

023_Rio de Janeiro beach
Rio de Janeiro beach ( Red pox)

024_Miami beach
Miami beach

A Study of Multi Centred City Transformation

A Study of Multi Centred City Transformation

A Study of Multi Centred City Transformation
KL Sentral Central Business District

The development of transportation linkages encourages urban sprawl. Locally it has become increasingly evident in sections SS3, SS4, SS5, SS6 and SS7 next to Kelana Jaya LRT station, Bangsar South development next to Kerinchi LRT station and KL118 next to Maharajalela Monorail Station, thus leading to the speculation of the emergent of multi centred city development as a result of transportation development. Such transformations are triggered by the government’s continuous plan to expand the cities’ public transport network.

In the next 5 years, new multi centred city developments and their vicinity growth in Sungai Buloh Terminus station, Bus Rapid Transit in Bandar Sunway, Batu Kawan and Batu Maung near Penang’s Second Bridge, and the station stops for Kuala Lumpur – Singapore High Speed Rail are to be anticipated. Catalysed by transportation development, such complex yet dense transformative nature of the multi centred city development has encouraged us to relook into our local modern precedent – Kuala Lumpur Sentral Central Business District (KL Sentral CBD).

001_Overview of KL Sentral Station and traffic

Overview of KL Sentral Station and traffic, Image by Akira Mitsuda

Against this backdrop, this article intends to investigate the design challenges of such diversified use, dense and complex development. This is done by highlighting the transformative process of KL Sentral CBD and discussing the challenges of urbanising a Kuala Lumpur’s old railway marshalling yard into a modern transit hub.


In the 1880s colonial Resident Frank Swettenham set about rebuilding Kuala Lumpur with brick buildings after a huge fire and flood swept through Kuala Lumpur. The double disaster took turns destroying Kuala Lumpur primitive wooden structure. The brick kilns were sited, and the name Brickfields has persisted. The area became a ground for Kuala Lumpur’s industries, including the railway yards. During the colonial times, as Indians were brought in to operate the railways, they have eventually settled in Brickfields and its Indian character has persisted.

The current site for KL Sentral was formerly a marshalling yard for Malaysia’s national rail operator, Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad. The emergence of Kuala Lumpur Sentral began when the Government awarded the privatization of Stesen Sentral to Kuala Lumpur Sentral Sdn Bhd, a consortium led by Malaysian Resources Corp Bhd (MRCB) in 1994.

A concession was then signed on 1997, whereby Kuala Lumpur Sentral Sdn Bhd was tasked to build and surrender Stesen Sentral to the Government, in exchange for development rights over the surrounding 72-acre freehold commercial land.

18 years after work commencement in KL Sentral, the KL Sentral CBD has become a total facelift of its existing industrious self. Currently sited by Google Malaysia office, and a number of design practices such as RSP Architects Sdn Bhd, Arkitek MAA Sdn Bhd, Ong & Ong 360 Consultancy Sdn Bhd, many of which have offices outside of Kuala Lumpur. The vicinity to KL Sentral Transport hub, owing to the connectivity to the KL International Airport and flight check-in facility, facilitate travelling for international offices stationed in the KL Sentral CBD.

Passengers arriving in KLIA and KLIA2 will be alighting from the KLIA express are confronted at the KL Sentral CBD an environment of polished stone, stainless steel and glass, a modern outlook for the first impression of Kuala Lumpur for many travellers.

As KL Sentral CBD adjoins and submerges in the traditional Indian area of Brickfields and affluent residential suburb of Bangsar, its physical extensions are used to cut into and transform the older city. This creates a complex yet interesting skyline of the colourful low rise and high rises glass façade, portraying an image of the first impression upon arrival at KL Sentral station a progressive urbanizing nation of heritage complexity.

002_Contrasting view between KL Sentral CBD and Brickfields along Jalan Tun Sambanthan

Contrasting view between KL Sentral CBD and Brickfields along Jalan Tun Sambanthan


The weaving of the modern and heritage requires design care and sensitivity. Such urbanization is not entirely confined by and directed by governing council, albeit requiring the understanding and accommodation of demands and pressures from multiple and often conflicting origins. This is the case for the backdrop of KL Sentral CBD lying in the existing fabric of Bangsar to the east and Brickfields to the west. It attracts both low-wage service workers as well as high value knowledge workers and creative professionals. This heterogeneous population is crucial for the vitality and competitiveness of the city but it also poses the problem of uneven development, income disparity and social inequality.

For the past 5 years there have been disputes against any building developments in Brickfields due to traffic congestion and the increasing house prices. Whilst Bangsar is more accommodative to building development along Jalan Bangsar, the response from architects and urban planners to these contextual challenges – through the provision of sustainable housing, infrastructure, cultural and knowledge environments becomes ever more crucial.

If any Brickfields development restrictions were to be imposed, in short term it may be in the immediate neighbourhood’s best interest, may backfire and conversely contribute to regional undersupply of housing and eventually drive up the cost of housing in general. Careful planning of the CBD could help to reduce the overall cost of housing by contributing steadily to the housing supply, and therefore generally improves equitability in the housing market.

When planning equity in mind, the CBD may potentially be benefiting low and moderate income communities by linking workers to employment centres, introducing construction and maintenance jobs, and spurring investment in areas that have suffered neglect and economic depression.

The CBD may reduce transportation costs, leading to less households expenditure since transportation fee constitute a larger percentage relative to the higher income’s household. This frees up household income that can be used on food, education, or other necessary expenses. Low-income people are less likely to own personal vehicles and therefore more likely to depend exclusively on public transportation to get to and from work, making reliable access to transit a necessity for their economic success.

003_Overall view of KL Sentral Central Business District indicating the vacant lots

Overall view of KL Sentral Central Business District indicating the vacant lots.

MRCB albeit being close to fully utilising the 72 acres it has in KL Sentral, is putting aside two prime lots for development later, namely Lot F, next to Nu Sentral and 1 Sentrum, and Lot 349, adjacent to Menara Shell. Leaving the two lots undeveloped helps to reduce any sudden price hike in KL Sentral CBD, allowing the property prices to consolidate.

By deferring developments, it provides a buffer zone for locals to adapt to the progressive increment in prices. The recent opening of Nu Sentral Shopping Mall in year 2013 and the existing food stores off Jalan Tun Sambanthan act as a mediator and meeting points for both corporate office users and Brickfields residents for a place to dine and shop. Strategically situated between KL Sentral Station and Brickfields, the retail spaces becomes a gateway and welcomes the Brickfields residents to share its facilities. Though contrasting, it becomes a melting pot of options of public spaces via the inclusion of a Golden Screen Cinema, McDonald and public performance space in LG floor of Nu Sentral.

004_Event Performance space in Nu Sentral LG floor

Event Performance space in Nu Sentral LG floor, photo by Gopalakrishnan Nair

In anticipating massive use of public transport for the visually impaired, comprehensive consideration is given for installing tactile guided pathways from the arrival train station platforms to the Nu Sentral and the overhead bridge across Jalan Tun Sambanthan leading to the Brickfields Blind Association. This creates the sharing use of infrastructure, cultural and knowledge environments.

005_Tactile guided pathway on the KL Sentral Monorail station leading to Nu Sentral,

Tactile guided pathway on the KL Sentral Monorail station leading to Nu Sentral, photo by


With more than 30,000 population already living and working in Kuala Lumpur Sentral CBD with a total 72 acres of land area, it creates a density of 100,880 population/km2, a density almost twice of Hong Kong, standing at 6,544 population/km2. The masterplan seeks to provide a total lifestyle of work, live, learn, and play for its workers and residents, and poses a diversity challenge as an integrative discipline for the design in architecture, urbanism, and infrastructural design; a self-sufficient multi centred city that blurs the dualism of these activities.

By merging of living and working within this ‘hybrid’ urban space, the diverse phenomenon has allowed the social and economic transformations of labour to create new form of spaces, namely, Small Office Home Office (SOHO), Serviced Office Virtual Office (SOVO) and Serviced Office Virtual Office (SOFO). These work live combinations allows home based small scale businesses, whilst the tower offices such as Plaza Sentral Office Suites and 1 Sentrum allows for larger scale of business entity supported by Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) facilities and infrastructure.

Whilst these empower production, it must however be equally enriched by recreation. Upon the creation of the space of work and live on Plaza Sentral (office, 2001), Suasana Sentral (residential, 2002), 1 Sentral tower (office, 2007), Suasana Sentral loft (residential, 2008), it creates a void of necessity for the development of commercial spaces for the workers to cool off and recharge. This encourages the making of Sooka Sentral (commercial, 2008) and Nu Sentral (commercial, 2013). Of such creations of spaces are only catalysed by the completion and running of KL Sentral (transportations hub, 2000). Such is the choreograph of development in KL Sentral CBD and may be used for reference for its programmatic development phases for other transit-oriented development such as the Tun Razak Exchange linking MRT Sungai Buloh and Kajang Line and Bandar Malaysia linking the LRT Kelana Jaya Line.

006_Development Phases in KL Sentral Central Business District

Development Phases in KL Sentral Central Business District

In 2006, with the successful validation of MSC status, it welcomes international IT and financial firms to put their addresses in the KL Sentral CBD. In years to come, the connection linking National Museum and Lake Gardens to the CBD will be completed, transforming the current homogenous spaces of work, live, learn, and play into a cultural and outdoor recreation. This will give a leading edge for further improving the programmatic diversity of KL Sentral CBD, as compared to the KLCC outdoor Park in the KLCC CBD. It opens the floodgate for a workforce where everything related to the soul such as language, creativity and general intellect, is used for production.

007_Development Phases in KL Sentral Central Business District

Development Phases in KL Sentral Central Business District

Whilst the KL Sentral transportation hubs have sprawl into the complex network of offices, residential, commercial and leisure, it requires the support of the integrated facilities management for the daily management and maintenance, namely the integrated Building Management, Traffic control, Façade Maintenance, General Cleaning, Car Park facilities, Auxiliary Security, and Information and Communications Technology maintenance team. Architect’s design integration of building operations are to be considered and inclusive to prevent high building operating cost in the future.

In the masterplan by the late Architect Dr. Kisho Kurokawa, the entire CBD and its vehicular flow are created from the notion of island design in the form of one way roads. There are 6 major islands, namely surrounding the KL Sentral station, Sentral Park, Hilton and Le Meridien Hotels, and island surrounding Plaza Sentral with UEM, MIDA, SSM and Quill 7 towers, island consisting Menara Shell, Ascott Sentral, Suasana Sentral & Suasana Sentral Loft Condominiums, and the island consisting of CIMB, Q Sentral, One IFC and St Regis Hotel & Residences, and the Sentral Residences. Within which are smaller islands surrounding each towers. This ensures all towers are being serviced and consist of a formal drop off area whilst not contributing to the congestion in other islands. Traffic control officers are always seen to be keeping on toes to ensure no parking at the curb that could cause rippling congestion to other islands. This, however has not stopped the traffic congestion outside the perimeter of CBD, on Jalan Tun Sambanthan, Jalan Travers, Jalan Damansara, and Jalan Istana during peak hours.

008_Indication of Vehicular Circulation and Island design consisting of towers.

Indication of Vehicular Circulation and Island design consisting of towers.


The KL Sentral CBD becomes a catchment area for having a transit hub in its centre. With the furthest buildings within 400m of walkable distance from the station, it corresponds to the distance someone can walk in 5 minutes at 4.8km/h. It becomes more encouraging with the covered walkway to shelter against rain, zebra crossing, traffic light, 24 hour securities for each drop off area. This creates a common space shared by low-wage service workers as well as high value knowledge workers and creative professionals. With 400m walking distance residents have easy access to daily needs in the diversified CBD, thus creating a Transit Orientated Development.

With more than 30,000 human population and approximately 7,000 car park spaces available in the KL Sentral CBD, the most possible cars to human population ratio is 1:4. This ratio is one third of the ratio from the 23.71 million total registered vehicles over the 30 million Malaysian population in December 2013.

009_Indication of walking distance (each circle is 100m in radius)

Indication of walking distance (each circle is 100m in radius)


Within the walking district, the masterplan allocates office towers to be aligning the train track, and placing residential used buildings away from hissing sound telegraphed through the track. This can be seen for Suasana Sentral (residential, 2002) and Suasana Sentral Loft Condominiums (Residential, 2008) located at the furthest southwest and St Regis Hotel & Residences (Hotel and Residential, 2015) and the Sentral Residences (Residential, 2016) are placed furthest to the north.

As the amount of commercial and office spaces exceeds the residential’s, the proximity is given to the offices to be adjacent to KL Sentral station facilitating workers to travel to work. To compensate this, the local residents are placed furthest from the station as residents can walk to work.

010_Masterplan of Program Indication

Masterplan of Program Indication


As the success of multi centred city is underpinned by efficient design and adequate infrastructure, the question as to the sustainability of these design and provisions becomes pivotal. The scale of infrastructure is often incompatible with changing demand of the city that is conducive for sustainable inhabitation. Its capacity is often outstripped by demand, leading to its premature demise.

Such is the example of 1930 Downtown Los Angeles in the wake of increased automobile ownership leading to decreased investment in the city centre. Downtown Los Angeles became a drive-in-drive-out destination as they would come into the area for a particular objective and then leave immediately once their business was completed. All great cities are susceptible to demise.

Against such odd, yearly appraisal and review are to be implement. Examples are The Master Plan of Singapore and the Tenth Malaysian Plan, reviewed once every 5 years, guiding the countries’ development in the near to medium term. Though such reviews are done by the governing bodies for a different scale, any Central Business District would have to be reviewed in the same sensitivity to transform the district to meet the changing demand and economic environment.

This is especially crucial in Kuala Lumpur where office spaces is abundant and currently undergoing major infrastructure developments, underlying by its potential for expansion. Such expansion opens doors for new CBD and new challenges for existing CBD to continuously transform. In KL Sentral CBD, the subsequent enlarging of LRT and MRT networks further increases the footfall for KL Sentral station. It was designed for 100,000 people per day, and is reaching 120,000. By 2017 upon the completion of enlarged LRT and MRT networks, KL Sentral Station would be looking at 180,000 to 200,000 people a day. As such, perpetual improvement to enhance the inter transit hub is required to meet the demands of the growing Kuala Lumpur and the newly connectivity to KLIA2.


Transformative Complexity in the Hilly Terrain

Transformative Complexity in the Hilly Terrain

Transformative Complexity in the Hilly Terrain
A study into the Genting Integrated Tourism Plan

The study into Theme Park are seldom in the academic of Architecture. The interest started from the previous post where the differences between Theme Park and Museum are studied. In the light of this, this article consists of the transformation of Theme Park, amidst the complexity in the hilly terrain.

Businesses in entertainment and leisure industries have continuously been transformative to meet the perpetual changing demand and social behaviour. Meeting such demands becomes pivotal for the survival of the entertainment and leisure industries. In recent times we observed the major renovations work for shopping malls the SStwo Mall in Section 19, and Jaya Shopping Centre in Section 14, and several shopping malls acquired by ARA Asia Dragon Fund, an affiliate of Cheung Kong Group, owned by Hong Kong’s richest man, Li Ka-shing. Theme Park and Resort Developments undergo even larger transformation in the scale of masterplan, ranging from the land size of 27,252 acres of Walt Disney World Resort to the 800 acres of Sunway Integrated Resort City. Land size aside, theme design incorporation becomes ever more crucial to meeting the novelty factor. In Malaysia this is evident in the emergent of a number theme park developments seen in the past few years and years to come, further making the competition tighter. The below highlights the recent theme park developments in Malaysia:

001a_Theme park and resort name

Though the study of Theme Park Resort Design has seldom been covered in the purview of architectural academic’s, such relevance is important due to their transformative nature and design direction. A precedent reference for such study was well recorded by Denise Scott Brown and Robert Venturi in the book “Learning from Las Vegas” published in year 1972. Subsequently in 2004, Nikos Salingaros, critics of Deconstructivism Architecture, theorise in his book, “Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction” argues that buildings and other structures are given unusual shapes for purposes of advertising and mimicry of famous building for the creation of landmark and follies. Though we see these designs prominently in Theme Park, Nikos finds similarities to Frank Gehry’s works where it lacks the human scale details and are appealing to novelty and excitement.

Nonetheless, the article intend to investigate the complexity nature of the perpetual transformation of a Theme Park Resort development, namely the Genting Highlands, due to their logistics difficulties and hilly terrain challenges. We will look into their recent planning layout and key design consideration when planning the masterplan and infrastructure.

Since opening door for business in 1971, development in Genting Highlands has been uninterrupted. A pattern of major completions can be spotted every approximately 5 years. Currently the transformative projects in the pipeline are a new 3,500 room hotel expansion to the current First World Hotel, a new 10,000 seat arena and reconverting the current theme park to 20th Century Fox World theme park of 25 acres. Once completed, Genting Highlands will be running at a maximum capacity of approximately 12,445 hotel rooms.

001b_Genting Accomplishments

Such major expansion plan is named the Genting Integrated Tourism Plan (GITP). The biggest change to Genting Highlands since the introduction of its theme park in 1992. GITP intends to enlarge the overall capacity of its accommodation, car parks, retail, entertainment, infrastructure, transport, staff’s quarters, and a new theme to the park.

Under the first phase of redevelopment, about RM4 billion will be spent on the development of new and refurbishment of existing hotel properties, infrastructures and amenities. All is scheduled for completion by 2016.

001_Development Plan

(Diagrammatic Masterplan of Genting Highlands upon work completion)

A new three-star hotel with approximately 3,500 rooms, will be developed concurrently with face lift works on the existing First World Hotel, Genting Grand, Maxims, Resort Hotel and Theme Park Hotel.

002_The new hotel towers lifting new height for Genting Highlands

(The new hotel towers lifting new height for Genting Highlands.)

Developing a new upper cable car station to enable a capacity of 100 gondolas to transit 4,000 persons per hour. Travelling from the resort’s mid-hill to the hilltop, it has 4 stops at Genting Premium Outlets (GPO), Chin Swee temple, Turning station and the arrival Sky Avenue.

003_Cable Car entrance to Sky Avenue

(Cable Car entrance to Sky Avenue and Sky Plaza Shopping Mall after overlooking the entire 20th Century Fox World outdoor theme park to the left.)

The development of a 10,000-seat show arena will be an addition to the existing 6,000 seats of Arena of Stars and 3,500 pax capacity occupants of Genting International Convention Centre.

Almost equivalent to the number of additional hotel rooms, a new multi-storey car park to accommodate 3,200 parking bays and bus bays will be built.


004_Conceptual Plan of 20th Century Fox Theme Park

(Conceptual Plan of 20th Century Fox Theme Park)

Resorts World Genting will open its doors to the much-anticipated 20th Century Fox World outdoor theme park. Occupying the land size of 25 acres, it will be composed of 25 new rides that are currently under site clearance and earthwork.

005_Site Picture taken on January 2015

(Site Picture taken on January 2015, image by Afiq Nadriz)

006_the new podium development
(the new podium development on the west side of First World Hotel)

Building on a single podium encirculating the outdoor theme park, the podium serves as the gateway entrance due to its junction for the cable car arrival, car park below, the Sky Plaza shopping mall and casino at the top portion of the podium with hotels above the podium. Covering approximately 50 levels, making the new development taller than the existing First World Hotel.

007_the Sky Avenue overlooking the Outdoor Theme Park

(the Sky Avenue overlooking the Outdoor Theme Park)

In addition to the above, a central walkway flanks with retail connecting the First World Hotel to Genting Grand, Maxims, and Resort Hotels. Covering 750,000 sqft and 76 units of retail space, this creates a pleasurable walking journey similar to the Vittorio Emmanuele II Galleria in Milan or Publika Shopping Gallery in Solaris Dutamas with multiple glass domes and glass vaulted arcades. By popular demand as seen in the Starbucks at the Ground Floor of First World Hotel and The Coffee Bean at the Ground Floor of Resort Hotel, the arcade shopping space opens up to the outdoor creating corridor of al fresco dining facing the theme park.



(Ring roads and arrows showing the circulation due to multiple adaptive transformations)

The adaptive masterplan is designed differently than the regular city grid of New York and Barcelona where the circulation and new tower placements are decided upon the terrain and existing buildings. Over time the masterplan grows organically in the form of islands. This allows smooth operation of other islands whilst creating opportunity for individual island to undergo roadblock for construction work.

Thus the masterplan is set in the notion of 4 minor ring roads inside a larger ring rood. The minor ring roads are namely the island surrounding Maxims and Resort Hotels, Genting Grand Hotel, Sky Avenue and theme park, and lastly the First World and New Hotels. Each minor ring road has its individual exit to the larger ring road to avoid unnecessary detour into other islands and create further congestion. All minor ring roads share a common entrance main road in the centre, making the main road fundamentally crucial to maintain congestion free.

Set in the backdrop of organic transformation, the Genting Highlands slowly carve in via its ring road circulation to create bubble of islands for its future projects. These bubble of islands grow within the larger ring road that was set forth during initial planning in the 1990s. To create a new island outside of this larger ring road posses new challenges to the existing framework. Thus consideration was taken for further plans to develop GPO at mid-hill Awana.


Currently in planning stage, the second phase of development constitute the GPO located at mid-hill Awana. Whilst offering a wide range of leading designer brand fashion, sportswear, fine leather, luggage, housewares, home furnishings and fashion accessories, the GPO is presented to emulate the success of Johor Premium Outlet.


009_Contour map showing

(Contour map showing the potential expansion site due to the relative gradual slope terrain condition)

Whilst the GITP may be perceived as a major facelift to Genting Highlands, the terrain suggests further opportunities for development at the Northwest and the entire East directions, all within the Pahang governing state. Though this may be development outside of the larger ring road, it creates an alternative view towards the surrounding greens than the current theme park view.

Against the backdrop of limited land size, logistic difficulties and challenging terrain, GITP is merely a small step towards the many opportunities lies ahead. Perhaps the challenges that matter the most are in the form of economy, namely the impending competitions from the many theme park developments, the rising cost, and the general dwindling affordability of the nation.

How does the Architectural and Masterplanning Design can resolve these economy challenges in the form of Theme Park Resort?


Image References

Identifying Malaysian Architecture

Identifying Malaysian Architecture

Whilst the likes of Petronas Twin Tower and Malaysian Houses of Parliament have been the iconic Malaysian Architecture in the 1990s and 1960s respectively despite designed by Foreign Architects, by 31st August 2016 lies the 59th anniversary of Malaysia independence.

With 59 years of independence, Malaysian Architects would have sprouted from the influence from its British Colonial, and able to give voice to its own Design Identity. In Pursuit of such Architecture Identity, the below documents the findings of 5 general movements completed in this decade:




001_Kompleks Kerja Raya 2
Kompleks Kerja Raya 2
GDP Architects
2013 completion

Architect: GDP Architects Sdn Bhd in collaboration with Foster+Partners
Client: Bandar Raya Developments Bhd
Builder: IJM Construction Sdn Bhd

003_The Capers, Sentul
The Capers, Sentul
RT + Q Architects

004_Starhill Gallery
Starhill Gallery
Local Architect: A. Mariadass Architect
Architects: Spark
Location: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Principal Architect: Stephen Pimbley
Project Architect: Michael Gibert
Completion 2011



005_Suruhanjaya Tenaga Sustainable Building
Suruhanjaya Tenaga Sustainable Building
NR Architect of Kuala Lumpur, with Thai architect Dr. Soontorn Boonyatikam serving as principal for the project
completed in 2009



006_Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre (KLPac)
Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre (KLPac)
YTL Design Group architect Baldip Singh
May 2004

007_Majestic hotel
Majestic hotel
GSD Architect
Opened 2012



008_PJ Trade Centre
PJ Trade Centre
Kevin Low
Tujuan Gemilang Sdn Bhd.



Crystal Mosque

010_Putrajaya Ministry of Finance
Putrajaya Ministry of Finance
GDP Architects
August 2002.
Client : Putrajaya Holdings Sdn Bhd

011_Putrajaya City Hall
Putrajaya Corporation Building Complex
Putrajaya City Hall
Perbadanan government complex
ZDR (in collaboration with Dubus Richez, Paris and AKB Architects)

6 Observations of Public Spaces in Malaysia

6 Observations of Public Spaces in Malaysia

Observation of Public Spaces in Malaysia
In the eyes of Jane Jacobs

01 – Area around Park must not be underused.
Observation: KLCC Park vs Perdana Botanic Garden.

KLCC City Centre Park – Offices, Leisure and Residential surrounds the Park. Easily Accessible/ shortcuts among towers, the park is highly used.

002_Perdana Botanical Gardens
Perdana Botanic Garden – Institutions and private club houses stays within, with heavy traffic Jalan Damansara and Jalan Parlimen bounded the park, making Perdana Botanic Garden alive only during weekend and events.

02 – City Centre to be multiple used and flexible.
Façade are irrelevant. Potential in Adaptability takes precedent. Hospital, Hotel, Office share similar façade whilst allowing flexibility of changing programs within. Observations: KL Sentral and Bangsar Shoplots.

003_KL Sentral
KL Sentral – Façade no longer dictates the program. KL Sentral hosts multiple interchangeable programs.

004_Bangsar Lot
Bangsar Shoplots – the high turnover of tenants allows adaptability of the place.


03 – Significance of Sidewalk to Encourage Interaction.
Observations: Jalan Ampang, KLCC and KL Sentral sidewalk

006_Street View
Jalan Ampang, KLCC – broad, well lit and landscaped walkway making shopping easier.

005_KL Sentral Sidewalk
KL Sentral Sidewalk – Despite the density of towers, islands of towers discourage foot commune.


04 – Business/ Social Activities encourage use.
Contrast Observations: Putrajaya Boulevard and The Curve.

007_Putrajaya Boulevard
Putrajaya Boulevard – Majority of Institution buildings and street parking made mute towards the boulevard, especially under the glaring weather.

008_The Curve
The Curve – Abundant of F&B, Retails, Events and Music draw crowds.


05 – Performance Zoning rather than Land use Zoning.
Contrast Observations: Sooka Sentral and The Nu Sentral, Setia Alam and Jalan Alor@Bukit Bintang.

009_Sooka Sentral
Sooka Sentral – Despite the good composition of Retail among the office towers, the Retail building merely becomes active during office hour and empty during off-office. Land Use Zoning is not sufficient as it neglect the use of time.

010_Nu Sentral
Nu Sentral – Good Circulation between stations and Brickfield create footfall to the mall regardless of the hour. Performance oriented design look beyond composition but also circulation, visual, and population.

011_Setia Alam
Setia Alam – The segregation of the Residential and Commercial, though may provide security and privacy, may also enforces transportation by vehicle rather than by foot. The clear segregation of land use designated spaces singularly.

012_Bukit Bintang
Jalan Alor @ Bukit Bintang – Residential above and Commercial below, Jalan Alor has become a vivid performing space without much security and privacy.


06 – Green as Barrier + Natural Surveillance + Social Activities as a separate causality.
In turn, Green Space enforces Social Activities, Social Activities help Natural Surveillance, and Natural Surveillance subvert Physical Security Barrier. Ie Putrajaya vs Desapark City.

Putrajaya – High density of residential surrounds the Linear Putrajaya Lake are segregating the concept of “Green as Barrier + Natural Surveillance + Social Activities”. Mix of programs allow 24 hours surveillance.

014_DesaPark City
Desapark City – mixed of commercial, leisure and resort connects the green space creating social activities, which in turn natural surveillance and reduces any physical barrier.



Last year’s posting on 35 DAZZLING ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE looked into the Islamic concept of simplicity.

In this festive day of Eid-al-Fitr 2016 (End of Ramadan), we relook into the modern approach of the Islamic concept. The design questions lie on whether the modern construction method may have overshadowed the Islamic concept. Amidst Modernism, whether the Islamic spatial concept is retained.

Here we look into samples of Modernising Islamic Architecture

Extendable Shelter Space

002_Mountain Tents for Hajj Pilgrims
Mountain Tents for Hajj Pilgrims,
Prototypes in Muna

001_Half-Folded Shade Umbrellas at the Prophet’s Mosque
Half-Folded Shade Umbrellas at the Prophet’s Mosque
Mahmoud Bodo Rasch
Madinah, Saudi Arabia


004_Ali ben Youssef Madersa, Marrakesh, Morocco
Ali ben Youssef Madersa, Marrakesh, Morocco
Louis Montrose

003_Marrakesh Menara airport
Marrakesh: Menara airport

Habitable Space under Shelter

005_Mashrabiya of the old part of Basra city, 1954
Mashrabiya of the old part of Basra city, 1954

006_Mashrabiya House
Mashrabiya House
Architects: Senan Abdelqader
Location: Jerusalem, Palestine
Project Area: 1700 sqm
Photographs: Amit Giron
Is it a Mashrabiya House ?

Repetition of Ancient Islamic patterns

008_Tomb of Hafez inShiraz, 1935
Complex girih patterns with 16-, 10- and 8-point stars at different scales
in ceiling of the Tomb of Hafez inShiraz, 1935
By Pentocelo
CC BY 3.0,

007_Burj Doha Skyscraper
Burj Doha Skyscraper
By Arwcheek – Photographed from the street
Previously published: n/a,
CC BY-SA 3.0,

Patterns on Earth – Natural vs Artificial

Patterns on Earth – Natural vs Artificial

Spending time wandering in Google Earth has led to amazing finds.

Here, we have a comprehensive gallery of satellite imagery that shows these dazzling patterns along with the requisite links for their locations. This allows audience to see the locations for themselves on Google Earth/ Bing Map.

Read More

35 Dazzling Islamic Architecture

35 Dazzling Islamic Architecture

Simplicity is one of the Islamic concepts that encourage respect and to show unpretentiousness.

In this festive day of Eid-al-Fitr (End of Ramadan), we have collected a series of photographs.

Simply focusing on the mosque’s ceilings, something the faithful might see when they look up to the heavens, we find simplicity in intricacy.

It is this simplicity that dazzled our perception and encourages us to relook into Islamic concept; through Architecture:

001_Fatima Masumeh Shrine, Qom, Iran
Fatima Masumeh Shrine, Qom, Iran
High Resolution download here

002_Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
High Resolution download here

003_Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
High Resolution download here

004_Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
High Resolution download here

005_Sheikh Lutf Allah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran
Sheikh Lutf Allah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran
High Resolution download here

006_Vakil Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
Vakil Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
High Resolution download here

007_Shah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran
Shah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran
High Resolution download here
High Resolution download here

008_Jalil Khayat Mosque, Arbil, Iraq
Jalil Khayat Mosque, Arbil, Iraq

009_Sheikh Zayed Mosque, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Sheikh Zayed Mosque, Abu Dhabi, UAE
High Resolution download here
High Resolution download here

010_Taj Mahal Mosque Ceiling
Sheikh Zayed Mosque, Abu Dhabi, UAE
High Resolution download here

011_Grand Mosque of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Grand Mosque of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

012_Wazie Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan
Wazie Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan
High Resolution download here

013_Fatima Masumeh Shrine, Qom, Iran
Fatima Masumeh Shrine, Qom, Iran
High Resolution download here

014_Al Soltan Qalawoon Mosque, Cairo, Egypy
Al Soltan Qalawoon Mosque, Cairo, Egypy
High Resolution download here

015_Shiraz, Iran
Shiraz, Iran
High Resolution download here

016_Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
High Resolution download here

017_Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran

018_Sheikh Lutf Allah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran
Sheikh Lutf Allah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran
High Resolution download here

019_Bahud-Din Naqshband Mausoleum, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Bahud-Din Naqshband Mausoleum, Bukhara, Uzbekistan

020_Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran

021_Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran

022_Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran

023_Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran

024_Selimiye, Edirne, Turkey
Selimiye, Edirne, Turkey
High Resolution download here

025_Sheikh Lutf Allah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran
Sheikh Lutf Allah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran

026_Ali Ibn Hazem Holly Shrine, Shiraz, Iran
Ali Ibn Hazem Holly Shrine, Shiraz, Iran

027_Jame Mosque of Yazd, Iran
Jame Mosque of Yazd, Iran

028_Mihrab Dome, Mezquita, Cordoba, Spain
Mihrab Dome, Mezquita, Cordoba, Spain

029_Dome of the Rock Mosque, Jerusalem, Palestine
Dome of the Rock Mosque, Jerusalem, Palestine

030_Alahambra, Granada, Spain
Alahambra, Granada, Spain
High Resolution download here

031_Registan, Uzbekistan
Registan, Uzbekistan

032_Imam Khomeini Mosque, Isfahan, Iran
Imam Khomeini Mosque, Isfahan, Iran

033_Iranian Mosque
Iranian Mosque

034_Blue Mosque, Turkey
Blue Mosque, Turkey

035_magic Mihrab
Nasir al-Mulk Mosque, Iran

037_Shiraz, Iran
Ali Ibn Hazem Holly Shrine, Shiraz, Iran

039_Tori Kori Madrasah, Samarkand
Tori Kori Madrasah, Samarkand